Indian Markets, Over or Undervalued? – A discussion

Summary: In this note, we debate on the current levels of the Indian markets, using several well-known ratios, in the context of local and global events. We are perhaps continuing from my previous Outlook article – Equity Outlook, Nov’20: Rising like a Phoenix from the Ashes

Introduction

  • The Markets are at an all-time high as Nifty crossed 17,000 levels and Sensex 58,000 levels. However, the Indian markets have been quite volatile in the last 2 years.
  • In this note we try to debate and understand the causes and effects, and if the markets are Overvalued or Undervalued at these levels.
  • Here are 20 year and 2 year charts of Nifty. Over 20 years, the Nifty has gained at 15.4% CAGR. Fig 1.
  • In Mar’20, the market fell sharply by 39% due to Covid fears, but recovered thereafter See Fig 2.

Fig 1 and Fig 2: Nifty (Source tradingview) – All charts are clickable

PROS: Reasons why the Indian Stock Market is Overvalued

1. The Covid pandemic has affected the Indian economy, yet the markets are booming.

  • The GDP growth in FY21 was -8%. In the second wave of May-July this year too the social and economic impact was hard. Inspite of this, the stock markets have risen. So, until the economy recovers, markets certainly look overvalued.

2. High P/E ratio of Nifty, as well as Midcap and Smallcap indices

  • PE of nifty was recently as high as 42 times, and even today at 28 times means that investors are paying ₹28 for ₹1 of earnings. See Fig 3. Before the 2008 market crash, Nifty PE ratio was 28.29.
  • Historically, a Nifty PE ratio of more than 25 means the Indian market is overvalued. 
  • Due to pandemic, there has been a fall in earnings of companies, even as the stock market rose. This was one of the main reasons why Nifty 50 touched life time high. For example, Reliance Ind. and TVS have shown steady growth but there has been a steep fall in earnings of companies like ONGC, Maruti Suzuki etc. which caused a large increase in Nifty PE ratio.
  • Cash influx by FIIs. During the pandemic, Central banks of USA and Europe printed cash in trillions as stimulus. The US Fed reduced interest rate to as low as 0.25%. FIIs started investing some of the cash in emerging markets like India for growth opportunities.
Fig 3: Nifty PE

3. Market Cap to GDP Ratio

  • This ratio is sometimes referred to as the Buffet indicator. It is a good way to check if the market is overvalued or undervalued compared to its past historical average.
  • Historically India’s Market cap to GDP ratio is 75%. A ratio of 100% is a sign of an expensive market.
  • Before the stock Market crash of 2008, the market cap to GDP was 103%.
Market Cap / GDPInterpretation
85% < ratio < 101%Moderately overvalued
Ratio >101%Significantly overvalued
Today’s level103% indicates Nifty is overvalued

4. Stock Market in a Bubble

  • In India, investors seem to be in a frenzy and attracted to the stock markets. Total Demat accounts have doubled in the last 2 years. What started as a hobby and pass-time during the lockdown, also encouraged by mobile apps by stock brokers, has grown into a massive wave. The IPOs are getting highly oversubscribed.
  • According to RBI, prices of risky assets have surged across many countries and have touched record high levels during 2020-21 on the back of unparalleled levels of monetary and fiscal stimulus.
  • The US Fed said the turn in market sentiments “following positive news on the development of and access to vaccines and the end of uncertainty surrounding US election results” were some of the major factors that led to increased valuation of global equities, also reflecting in Indian markets.
  • This asset price inflation in the context of 8% contraction in GDP in FY21 poses the risk of a bubble.

5. Debt to GDP Ratio

  • The central govt. total debt/ GDP at end of FY21 was 58.73%. High ratio indicates that the market is highly leveraged. During 2008 the ratio was highest and was 58.86%.
  • In a similar way, India’s total public debt (Centre and States) is likely to touch 90% of GDP in FY21, the highest ever recorded. In 2019-20, the total public debt to GDP ratio was 70%.
Fig 4: Debt to GDP ratio

6. Nifty Price to Book Value

  • It is the proportion of price to assets you own when you buy shares of a company.
  • The average long term Nifty PB is 3.5. Majority of the time, Nifty PB stays in the range 2-4 range.
  • It hit a peak of 6.55 during 2008.
If PB greater than  4Expensive
Between 2.75 – 3.5Fairly priced
Less than 2Cheap
Currently  PB ratio4.25

7. The monetary and fiscal stimulus has to end, followed by Global Tightening

  • With some recovery, the Fed and other Central Govts. have to draw back on the easy liquidity, raise interest rates, and the Indian stock markets will crash.
  • This is a likely scenario, but we cannot say if this will happen in the next quarter or next 4 years.

CONS: Reasons why the Indian Stock Market is still Undervalued

1. Reforms in the Indian Economy

  • A series of reforms in the last decade such as IBC, RERA, GST, crackdown on Black Money and investments in Digital and Fintech have happened and the benefits of these are unfolding.
  • Growth initiatives like ‘Make in India’ and ‘PLI for manufacturing’ have set the stage for higher employment, reduced imports and a stronger economy and self-sufficiency.
  • Govt. initiatives like controlling deficits, import substitution (in defense and monetization of gold assets) have strengthened the domestic economy.
  • The Digital Transformation of Indian Stock Markets, and the fall from grace of Indian Real Estate for investments.

2. The China + 1 Situation

  • The trade and political tension between USA and China has changed the equations in the last few years. USA had become dependent on China for a lot of manufactured products. With changing equations, it has become necessary for global firms to look at alternatives for manufacturing at scale. India is positioning itself as a good alternative by the Make in India and Production Linked Incentives (PLI) in manufacturing, extending from electronics, chemicals, defense, textiles, auto, etc.
  • In capital markets, China recently cracked down on several domestic sectors like steel, education, ecommerce, fintech, etc. Many foreign investors lost money as the changes in business ground rules were sudden and unexpected and based on China’s authoritarian system. China may thus become an unattractive option for global capital, and India may emerge as a stronger alternative.
  • These situations can result in India attracting high FDI and FII capital in the next few years.  

3. Because of Covid, many domestic sectors were affected, but are recovering fast

  • Sectors such as Travel & Tourism, passenger transportation, Hotels, Restaurants, Auto, mfg., Real Estate & construction are sectors still below pre-Covid levels. Banks have also suffered. All these sectors are expected to recover in 1-2 years, which will help improve earnings of the sectors.
  • The IMF has put India’s growth forecast as 9.5% for fiscal 2022 inspite of the second wave of Covid during Apr-Jun‘21. Chief Economic Adviser K V Subramanian said the economy is expected to stabilize to 8% growth in subsequent years.
  • Strong economic growth will drive up the Earnings, and reduce the high valuations of the market. Already we can see that the Nifty PE has fallen from 42 to 29 in just 2 quarters as the economy improves earnings and recovers from Covid, see Fig 3.
  • With better earnings, the high P/E ratio of Nifty, as well as Midcap and Smallcap indices will correct.

4. High Exports growth

  • India’s exports are growing very well in the last few quarters, in sectors such as gems and jewellery, petroleum, chemicals and engineering. The indications are of an economic revival in India and the country is on track to achieve $400 billion of goods exports this financial year and attract high FDI in FY22.
  • India’s foreign exchange position has strengthened in the context of the pandemic and India has been growing forex reserves at a record pace.
  • The INR has strengthened in the last few quarters, while there was a broad decline in the USD after the Fed Chairman said more progress was needed in the economy to withdraw stimulus.

5. Covid fears reducing, and global economy in a rebound

  • The second wave of Covid is receding in India. A third wave is possible, but we have already seen that the second wave was handled well by the administration and industry.  
  • Vaccination is scaling up in India and should cover a majority of the population soon. This will allow free movement of people, a return to work, and ensure a rapid recovery of the economy.
  • Post covid, the global travel will recover. Meanwhile in India IT based services and manufacturing are ramping up and supplying consumers in a global recovery.
  • A massive migration of workers in India from Urban centers to villages, is slowly reversing as jobs beckon across construction, logistics and retail. Education centers and offices are also reopening.
  • The high Market Cap to GDP Ratio may correct if the GDP rises as expected in next few years.
  • The Stock Market appears in a Bubble but it is in fact recovering from many years of under penetration of equity and slow growth. A new generation of younger investors are more optimistic and positive in their thinking.
  • The fiscal deficit would remain elevated over the next two years but the debt to GDP ratio is expected to stabilize or flatten out.
  • The private sector has been underinvested in Capacity and Capex in the last decade. With lower interest costs and higher growth expected, the private sector is making capex plans. If the trend accelerates, the Price to Book Value will reduce.
  • The stock market is forward looking. It anticipates higher GDP and growth in the next few years, and the Nifty levels reflect this optimism.

Conclusion

  • As an investor in the Indian markets over the last 15 years, I have always believed in the growth story and the resilience of the market. At around $1947, the Indian per capita income is low. Given the freedom, global connects and govt. initiatives, the economy should be able to achieve over 7% GDP growth over the next few years. Except for the informal sector and unlisted space, much of this growth should translate into gains for the stock markets in India.
  • The Indian economy has been reset by the Covid infection. However most businesses have been able to adjust and adapt to it in terms of prevention and resolution. It’s not business as usual any longer. The people and businesses are back, stronger than ever, and with a new urgency.
  • Assuming a full recovery for the economy over the next year and good growth thereafter, the markets will stay positive. Given the context of excellent liquidity, low interest rates and a benevolent, growth oriented, stable policy environment, the Indian markets can continue to rise.
  • Markets are unpredictable in the short term, but participants and investors can expect good returns in a 3-5 year period horizon.  

Disclaimer

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an Investment Advisor. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.

Nestle India – Healthy Food, but High Valuations

  • Date: 02nd Sept 2021
  • CMP: ₹19,950
  • Industry: Food & Beverages
  • Large Cap: ₹1,88,000  cr. mkt cap
  • P/E:  82.46 times and P/B: 88 times
  • HOLD with a Jan’24 target of ₹26,400, a 33% gain in 2.5 years.

Summary

  • About Nestle: in India since 1912, Nestle has brands like Cerelac, Nescafe, Maggi, Milkybar, Kit Kat, Bar-One, Milkmaid and Nestea. With 8 mfg. locations, it primarily makes products in house. The premium products are widely distributed. Nestle revenue in CY20 was ₹13,290 cr. & profits ₹2,082 cr. Revenues, EBITDA and PAT have grown at 10%, 12.2% & 12.6% CAGR over 8 years. Nestle is investing in capex of ₹2,600 cr. over the next 3-4 years, to augment capacities and locations. Innovation is impressive with several launches planned.
  • Risks: 1) High valuations 2) intense competition 3) regulatory challenges 4) raw material price volatility 5) a new event like the ‘Maggie crises’.
  • Opinion: Given high valuations, we suggest HOLD with a target of ₹26,431 by Jan’24, a 33% gain.

The Investment research report is available for download, do read our insightful research in PDF format here.

Disclaimer

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. The basis for Target Price is a target P/E of 77.5 times, management commentary and analyst judgement. Punit Jain has no position or shareholding in Nestle India. In addition, JM has no known financial interests in Nestle India or any related group. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of Investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any Investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an Investment Advisor. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.

Cryptocurrency – Or is it a CryptoCommodity?

Date: 16th June 2021

Summary

  • There is an excitement around Cryptocurrency (CCS) – a combination of high potential gains, high tech backbone, a novelty, and a rebelliousness, that has attracted investors and driven demand. While initial purchases were by professional traders, speculators, crooks and gamblers, the ecosystem and exchanges have been helping to simplify and popularize it.
  • The success of an asset class like CCS will be largely driven by regulations, and demand – supply. Regulations are now by and large benign. So far the demand has exceeded supply, but in June 2021 we are in a very positive investing cycle across stocks, commodities and CCS. A reversal will challenge CCS price trends.
  • If the two major issues around CCS of – 1) too many coins options and 2) high wastage of electricity for CCS mining and processing – are addressed, CCS has the potential to become a widely used and stable currency.
  • Until this happens, CCS has characteristics closer to global commodities, hence our term, CryptoCommodity.
  • Investing now into CCS is for professional traders, those with a high risk appetite, and who can see as much as a 50% fall in value, at least temporarily. Some experts suggest a maximum 5% of investible funds to be allocated to this asset class.
  • Past report on Cryptocurrency available A Note on Cryptocurrency

Introduction

  • The story of cryptocurrency (CCS) and blockchain technology began in the year 2008 when the globe was going through the financial crisis. We saw the fall of Lehman brothers, rising unemployment, and the bubble burst. Meanwhile, Satoshi Nakamoto founded bitcoin which was the first decentralised currency in the world valued at $0.0008, which is currently trading at $38,700. Also see Market caps of Coins in Fig 1a.
  • In the past 12 years of CCS market, many new coins were introduced that have almost disappeared. On the other hand, Dogecoin that was promoted by Elon Musk, helped it to rally very high just by his tweets.

Fig 1a- Market Capitalization in USD B / and Fig 1b – Volatility of Asset classes

  • CCS are digital currencies that utilize blockchain technology to provide improved security, anonymity, and decentralization. There is no central authority for CCS, and no third parties needed to facilitate transactions.
  • In Fig 1b, we compare Bitcoin with Gold and US equities in terms of volatility and drawdowns over 10 years. Bitcoin has the highest drawdowns, showing that it is more risky. 
  • Transactions are highly secure and independent. The most famous CCS, the blue chip cryptos, are Bitcoin and Ethereum. They have market capitalizations of ₹50.3 lakh crore and ₹22.6 lakh cr. resp.
  • Bitcoin, Ethereum and Dogecoin have rallied 2.7X, 9.4X and 133X resp. in a one year time frame. See Fig 2a.
  • CCS offers more confidential transactions with least transactions fees involved and provides more lucrative opportunities for easier international trade.
  • But CCS has some adverse effect on environment in terms of consumption of more power and electricity for mining which made Tesla to withdraw from Bitcoin as a payment option.
  • Even though CCS is decentralised, but they are still several powerful operators, who can manipulate the prices, and we can see huge dips and bounces in the market.

Fig 2a – BTC movement last 5 years and Fig 2b – In 1 year (Sources – Statista and Coinbase)

Recent News and Events

  • Recently RBI had issued notices to banks which gives relief to Indian crypto investors, allowing transactions in CCS but it needs to be regulated under KYC, Anti money laundering and combination of Financing of terrorism, Prevention of money laundering Act (2002).
  • The El Salvador Congress on June 9 approved a bill making the world’s largest CCS, Bitcoin, legal tender in the country. The Central American country is now the first ever to make Bitcoin legal tender.
  • Last month US CCS exchange Coinbase successfully listed on the Nasdaq stock exchange. This listing could stabilize CCS, change the perceptions of individuals and make the future bright for the industry. Coinbase also faces competition from Binance, the world’s largest crypto exchange, as well as decentralized exchanges like Uniswap, which handle more trading activity than Coinbase.
  • U.S Treasury calls for stricter CCS compliance with IRS as they pose tax evasion risk. Treatment of this in India is unclear. GoI has constituted a panel to develop crypto regulations for India.
  • China has taken a decision to ban financial institutions and payment companies from providing services for crypto transactions and has warned investors against speculation and volatility. This news led to bitcoin falling 50% from the years high to the lowest since February, See Fig 2a and 2b.
  • With the initial few CCS taking off, many new coins were being introduced in the form of ICOs (Initial Coin Offers). However this market became frothy and by Nov 2017, there were around 50 ICO offerings a month.
  • Indian blockchain start-up Polygon, is the first well structured, easy to use platform for Ethereum scaling which aims to provide faster and cheaper transactions on Ethereum. Mark Cuban a US based entrepreneur has invested an undisclosed amount in the Polygon Matic coin, which hit a new high market cap of $14 B.
  • Tesla allowed Bitcoin as payment option for purchasing vehicles, but later Elon Musk removed the option as there was significant increase in mining of the CCS after his announcement.
  • As technical outlook remains positive and strong, Bitcoin is expected to reach $4,00,000 level in 2021 as per Bloomberg. Many investors have added an exposure to CCS as a small part of their assets.

CRYPTO v/s GOLD

  • Gold is a traditional global store of value; Cryptos are new
  • Gold is physically heavy, difficult and costly to transport; CCS are instantly transferred
  • Country wise restrictions or taxes for import or export; CCS are digital and generally permitted
  • Gold is well established and regulated; CCS has low to medium clarity on rules and regulations
  • A rise in gold prices over the past 50 years; CCS/ Bitcoin has seen massive rally over last decade
  • Gold has been a protection against large risks like war and infection; also provides safety against inflation
  • CCS is itself volatile, so is not yet a safe store of wealth, but more is itself a high risk, potentially high gain asset
  • CCS can in future become a major threat to gold in global wealth and savings

CRYPTO v/s CURRENCIES like USD or INR

  • Cryptocurrency is weak as a currency due to high volatility.
  • Central banks stabilize their currencies and hedge against other asset classes to smoothen the spikes. Year on year movements reflect Trade balances and the strengths of their economies.
  • However CCS is increasing being accepted for purchasing on websites and as a medium of exchange. 
  • But it is right now being used as a speculative investment by itself.
  • CCS may evolve in time as a store of value and as an alternative to other stores of value.

CRYPTO v/s COMMODITIES like Crude Oil, Steel or Copper

  • The volatility of CCS can be compared to some global commodities.
  • Global commodities have supply restricted by mining and mfg. constraints and fluctuate in line with demand and supply.
  • Trading of global commodities happens rapidly on global exchanges but fulfilment and logistics to back the transactions of course require time.
  • Global commodities have an inherent utility and so trading of these is essentially the matching of producers with consumers, with a small fraction of speculative trading also happening.

Top Cryptocurrencies to invest in 2021

  • There are by now a large number of CCS, see Fig 3a below for a list.
Fig 3a – Cryptos
  • Of the options, we share a suggested ordered list of CCS for traders.
  1. Bitcoin
  2. Ethernum
  3. Cardano
  4. Ripple
  5. Polkadot
  6. Bitcoin Cash
  7. Tron
  8. VeChain

How to invest in cryptocurrency in India

  • There are lot of India available platforms like WazirX, CoinDCX Go and Coinswitch Kuber, etc. An investor can download the app, open an account by providing personal details, identity proof like Aadhar or PAN card. These apps are available in Play store and Appstore. Once the account is verified, the customer can link their bank account and add money to the wallet in the app using Mobikwik or bank transfer. See Fig 3b.
  • Once the balance reflects in the wallet, the customer can purchase coins available by just clicking to buy.
  • Purchased coin will be shown under My Investments. The platforms are user friendly and simple to navigate. See Fig 3c.
Fig 3b – Payment Transfer and Fig 3c – Buy the coin

Key Advantages & Disadvantages

Opinion and Outlook

  • There is an excitement around CCS – a combination of high potential gains, high tech backbone, a novelty, and a rebelliousness, that has attracted investors and driven demand. While initial purchases were by professional traders, speculators, crooks and gamblers, the ecosystem and exchanges have been helping to simplify and popularize it.
  • The success of an asset class like CCS will be largely driven by regulations, and demand – supply. Regulations are now by and large benign. So far the demand has exceeded supply, but in June 2021 we are in a very positive investing cycle across stocks, commodities and CCS. A reversal will challenge CCS prices.
  • If the two major issues around CCS of – 1) too many coins options and 2) high wastage of electricity for CCS mining and processing – are addressed, CCS has the potential to become a widely used and stable currency.
  • Until this happens, CCS has characteristics closer to global commodities, hence our term, CryptoCommodity.
  • Investing now into CCS is for professional traders, those with a high risk appetite, and who can see as much as 50% fall in value at least temporarily. Some experts suggest a maximum 5% of investible funds to be allocated to this asset class.

Disclaimer

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any Cryptocurrency or related app. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. Punit Jain has no cryptocurrency assets as on date. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an Investment Advisor or cryptocurrency specialist. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.

Shyam Metalics and Energy IPO – will Rise and Shine

  • Date: 12th June 2021
  • Small Cap: ₹7,800 cr. Mkt cap
  • Sector –  Steel industry
  • IPO Opens 14-16th Jun, at ₹303-306/share
  • Valuations: P/E – 12.8, EV/EBITDA – 8.1
  • Advice: SUBSCRIBE

Summary:

  • The global steel cycle is on an upswing. Global and domestic demand for steel is rising, and many India based steel plants are running at good capacity utilizations.
  • SMEL have a good financial strength, low debt, fair cash and ability to invest in their balance sheet.
  • Integrated operations, proximity to RM sources, in house power generation and captive railway sidings build into a low cost operating model, which is good in a commodity industry.
  • Growth plans are good including new products launch and doubling of mfg. capacity over 5 years.
  • This IPO will also help SMEL to reduce debt and strengthen the balance sheet for planned growth.
  • Key risks are 1) dip in steel cycle or Indian steel prices 2) high competition 3) steel price control by GoI 4) Rising iron ore and power costs.
  • Opinion: Investors can SUBSCRIBE to this IPO with a 1-2 year perspective.

JainMatrix Investments Service – PRICING OPTIONS

IPO Offering highlights

  • The IPO opens from 14-16th Jun 2021 in a Price Band of ₹303-306 per share
  • Total IPO size is ₹909 cr. of 2.97 cr. shares, about 12% of the equity shares. The IPO includes a fresh issue of ₹657 cr. and an Offer for Sale (OFS) of the remaining value, making up 0.82 cr. shares.
  • The lot size is 45 shares and Face Value is ₹10 per share.
  • Objects of the offer: Table 1: The Fresh Issue of up to ₹657 cr. will be utilized in following manner:
Particulars  Amount which will be financed from Net Proceeds Estimated Utilisation of Net Proceeds in Fiscal 2022
Repayment and/or pre-payment of debt of Company and SSPL, one of its Subsidiaries470 cr.470 cr.
General corporate purposes187 cr.187 cr.
  • The promoters own 100 % in SMEL which will fall to 88.35% post-IPO.
  • The IPO share quotas for QIBs: 50%, Non-Institutional Investors 15% and Retail is 35%.
  • In the grey market, the price of SMEL is at ₹436, a 42% premium to IPO price.  

Do read our insightful research, we attach the complete Investment report in PDF format here.

Disclaimer

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. JM has no stake ownership or financial interests in SMEL or any group company. Punit Jain intends to apply for this IPO. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an Investment Advisor. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.

The Indian Stock Markets’ 20 year Digital Transformation

Indian Stock Markets

It was about 20 years ago. I asked a relative about the stock markets. I got mixed stories.

On one hand 2-3 of their investments had done well and doubled in a few years.

On the other hand there were stories of (the Challenges)

  1. share values falling to almost zero, there were missing promoters or company locked in litigation
  2. difficult stock brokers. To know a good broker was rare. They were bullies, took your share and sold it and gave you money after a month; the transaction was opaque; you would be lucky if you only paid 4-5% commission on transactions.
  3. The stock market was famous for scams aplenty. The Harshad Mehta scam (1992), the Ketan Parekh Scam, the Satyam Scam, Saradha Scam and NSEL Scam, among other swirling stories of manipulation and operator driven shares naturally made outsiders wary. BSE had been in existence for a long time, and this was the nature of the market.
  4. A stock market transaction had a high degree of difficulty and uncertainty.

But it had piqued my interest. So a few years later when a new private bank offered me a website based stock broking account as an add on to the savings account, I went ahead and opened it.

Over the next few years, we saw a number of Equity Market Changes:

  1. The NSE came into existence with a digital trading offering
  2. Equity Shares began getting dematerialized. Once they were in Demat form, trading could be on the digital platform, quickly and cheaply
  3. SEBI as regulator began controlling and monitoring the sector’s progress
  4. A number of stock brokers came into existence, and with competition, broking commissions became reasonable.
  5. BSE and NSE had good digital backbones, so trading moved online
  6. The Mutual Fund industry took off, offering a simple entry level product for new investors
  7. Soon enough, the Equity Advisory, PMS and even AIF industries and products became available.

The digital transformation has dramatically changed Stock Market access, monitoring and information flow.

With these Equity Market industry changes, the nature of services available to the customer changed. The above Challenges were addressed:

  1. Share prices are still volatile. Some firms do fail/ go bankrupt. However, it does not happen in an information vacuum. We can track companies better today. Conversely, excellent companies do see good share price appreciation.
  2. Stock broking accounts can be opened easily. Transactions are easy, robust and transparent. Commissions are lower and competitive. Stock brokers are now much better, customer friendly and professional.
  3. Our Securities system has improved. The digital transformation has dramatically changed access, monitoring and information flow. Every scam perhaps made the system stronger eventually, as the loopholes found were blocked, (and hopefully that problem should not happen again). Of course there is no guarantee that there will not be another scam, but the stock market is a much safer place now.
  4. A stock market transaction is easily done now on websites, accessible from your PC, laptop, by phone call and even using mobile apps.

So a lot of people from my generation were afraid of the stock markets. The stories they heard from their friends and relatives were scary. Some people lost a lot of money and swore to never touch the sector again. However my message to them is:

Today the Indian Stock Markets are a very good Wealth option to all.

Its not too late. Take the plunge, and explore the stock markets for your wealth protection and appreciation.

To substantiate this, I present a simple 20 year graph of the SENSEX index

In this graph, one can see the performance of a Fixed Deposit (at 8% interest) versus the Sensex, in both absolute value and in the form of multiples.

Real Estate

The traditional Indian Wealth option has been Real Estate. People bought Land, apartments and commercial property, and waited for it to appreciate. Or developed it, and very often reaped excellent returns. For many years it appreciated very well.

Then came a couple of changes in the real estate sector:

  1. GST was brought in to track and tax real estate transactions
  2. RERA Act was brought in to make builders professional, accountable and transparent. It has been changing the way they work. Customers may finally have some protection or recourse now from builder slippages. However several builders could not change and adapt to the new rules, and may have scaled down or even closed.
  3. Several initiatives against black money have made real estate transactions more ‘white’ than they have ever been in the past.
  4. Today even after some correction, we can see that a buy v/s rent decision, for a city apartment, is still unbalanced. The EMI for an apartment purchase (with loan) is much higher than the rental cost for a similar property. In most mature markets abroad, the EMI and Rent are close or in some balance with each other.
  5. All this has resulted in a Time and Price correction in the real estate sector across categories. We can see that today this is still playing out. As a result:

Real Estate is no longer the default Wealth option it once was. Do try other options.

In 2020, 55% of adults in the United States invested in the stock market. Today in India, this is just 2%.

This is not going to change overnight for India, but as awareness builds, individuals must try and nibble at stock markets and educate themselves on its potential.

I have managed to do OK with my website based stock broking account. I became a full time investment professional in 2012. My firm JainMatrix Investments offers an equity advisory service to help invest in the stock markets. See our SERVICE DETAILS section.

Do revert to me if you have any questions on above article.

Regards,

Punit Jain

Founder, JainMatrix Investments

Glossary: I often use standard terms or shortforms so here is some explanation:

  • PMS – Portfolio management service
  • AIF – Alternative Investment Fund
  • EMI – Equated Monthly Installments, as in repayment for a loan
  • GST – Goods and Services Tax
  • RERA Act – link

DISCLAIMER

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an Investment Advisor. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.

IndiGo – Spreading Wings but Oil Squeeze

  • Date: 09th May 2019
  • Industry – Airlines 
  • CMP: Rs 1,575 
  • Large Cap of Rs 58,000 cr. mkt cap 

jainmatrix investments, indigo airlines

  • Overview: IndiGo is the market leader in Indian aviation with a low cost carrier model. It has a dominating domestic market share of 46.9%. The revenue and profit were Rs 23,967 crores and Rs 2,242 cr. resp. for FY18. The Income, EBITDA and profits have grown 31.6%, 26.6% and 21.3% CAGR over 8 years. The aggressive growth plans are in place for capacity addition. The Airline industry in India is going to see massive growth. With a big population, low penetration and weak railway sector, it should continue to grow at 15% over next few years. IGO has a strong brand and a leading domestic market share, consistent delivery and high growth. It has executed well on its LCC strategy. IGO has expanded the market with its growth. It will continue to dominate Indian skies due to network effect and good capacity additions. The IGO share is high due to market share gains, the Jet failure and Boeing grounding, inspite of high ATF prices. However there are several risks.
  • Key risks: 1) crude price rise affects ATF prices leading to sharp profit falls 2) large sector capacity adds puts pressure on prices 3) The risk of an engine failure is still there

Get the recommendation and research report: JainMatrix Investments_IndigoAir_May2019

Disclaimer

This document has been prepared by JainMatrix Investments Bangalore (JM), and is meant for use by the recipient only as information and is not for circulation. This document is not to be reported or copied or made available to others without prior permission of JM. It should not be considered or taken as an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources that are considered to be reliable. However, JM has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the same. Punit Jain discloses that he has been an investor in IGO since Nov 2015. He has also flown Indigo Airlines several times as a normal paying customer. Other than this JM has no known financial interests in IGO or Interglobe Aviation or any related firm. Neither JM nor any of its affiliates, its directors or its employees accepts any responsibility of whatsoever nature for the information, statements and opinion given, made available or expressed herein or for any omission therein. Recipients of this report should be aware that past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and value of investments can go down as well. The suitability or otherwise of any investments will depend upon the recipient’s particular circumstances and, in case of doubt, advice should be sought from an independent expert/advisor. Punit Jain is a registered Research Analyst under SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations, 2014. JM has been publishing equity research reports since Nov 2012. Any questions should be directed to the director of JainMatrix Investments at punit.jain@jainmatrix.com.